Courses: 2nd Year 2nd Sem., B. Sc. Physics

PHY212: Elementary Modern Physics
(2 credit units)Special relativity; defects in Newtonian mechanics, the speed of light; the Lorentz transformation of velocities. The atomic structure, experimental basis of quantum theory; black body radiation; electrons and quanta; Bohr’s theory of atomic structure; De Broglie hypothesis; the uncertainty principle; Schrödinger’s equation and simple applications

PHY222: Electromagnetism
(3 credit units)General concepts – divergence, curl, gradient theorems, Stokes theorem, introduction to curvilinear coordinates. Electricity and electrostatics. Electric field; potential and electricity of discrete and continuous distribution of charges, dielectrics and dielectric constants, polarisation vector and charge, displacement vectors, modified Gauss’s theorem. Magnetic field; Lorentz force, e/m ratios, velocity selector, cyclotron, betatron, magnetic dipole, moment, Faraday’s law, Ampere’s law. Introduction to electromagnetic waves.

PHY232: Optics and Waves
(2 credit units)Wave phenomena, acoustic wave, the harmonic oscillator, vibration in strings. Beats, waves on a string, energy in wave motion, elementary treatment of waves; types and properties, longitudinal waves, standing waves, group and phase velocity; propagation; intensity; phase and path difference. Wave behaviour, reflection, refraction, diffraction, standing waves, Doppler effect, sound waves, velocity and the effect of temperature; beats; vibrations in strings, instruments, resonance, musical scales. Physical optics; spherical waves, interference and diffraction, thin films, crystal diffraction, holography; dispersion of light, reflection at a spherical surface, thin lenses, lens equation, optical lenses, mirrors and prisms, microscopes and telescopes, aberration and correction.

PHY242: Experimental Physics IV
(1 credit units)The laboratory course consists of a group of experiments drawn from diverse areas of physics (optics, electromagnetism, mechanics, modern physics etc). It is accompanied by seminar studies of standard experimental techniques and the analysis of famous challenging experiments e.g. Michelson’s interferometer, photoelectric effect, Millikan’s oil drop experiment, Rutherford Scattering etc.

PHY252: Energy and Environment
(2 credit units)Energy and power; principles, demands and outlook, transformation of energy and its costs, thermal pollution, electric energy from fossil fuel, hydroelectric generation; principles and problems. Costs, capacity, storage, reserves, efficiency, new environmental effects. Electrical energy from solar power, geothermal power, tidal power, etc. Promises and problems. Renewable energy systems (solar, wind and biomass) and their utilisation, solar energy technology – applications for rural development, solar stills, solar dryers, solar cookers, solar cooling and heating. Solar cells and photovoltaic systems. Contribution of energy generation processes to environmental pollution and safeguards

PYE232: Electric Circuit Theory
(2 credit units)General outline of linear circuits and linear circuit analysis, linear transformations, oneport and twoport networks. Single phase sinusoidal alternating current circuits, locks diagrams, polyphase circuits, network topology. The methods of symmetrical components, some properties of three phase systems, examples of networks of unbalanced impedances, distribution parameter networks, ladder networks, periodic nonsinusoidal currents in linear circuits, Fourier series, harmonics in threephase systems, conventional filter design and operation. Operational methods of transient analysis of distributed parameter networks, nonlinear a.c. circuits, frequency response of electrical networks, Bode plots, poles and zeroes and time delay, rootlocus concepts

MTH212: Introduction to Numerical Analysis
(3 credit units)Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations. Curve fitting. Error analysis.Interpolation and approximation.Zeros or non – linear equations; to one variable system of linear equations.Numerical differentiation and integral equations.Initial value problems for ordinary differential equations.

GST 212: Introduction to Entrepreneurial Studies
(2 credit units) 
PHY262: Vector, Tensor & Complex Analysis
(3 credit units)Vector algebra, vector dot and cross product. Equations of curves and surfaces. Vector differentiation and applications, gradient, divergence and curl, vector integration, line, surface and volume integrals, Green’s strokes and divergence theorems. Tensor product of vector spaces, tensor algebra, symmetry, cartesian tensors.

MTH242: Linear Algebra II
(2 credit units)Systems or linear equation, change of basis, equivalence and similarity.Eigenvalues and elqenvectors.minimum and characteristics of polynomials of a linear transformation (matrix).Cayley –Hamilton theorem.Bilinear and quadratic forms, orthogonal diagonalisation. Canonical forms.
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